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    20 December 2014, Volume 20 Issue 4
    The Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks From the North China Craton and Temporal and Spatial Constraints on the Lithospheric Thinning
    LIU Jinju, YE Lei, NIU Yaoling*, GUO Pengyuan, SUN Pu, CUI Huixia
    2014, 20(4):  491. 
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    The Yuanjiazhuang and Bainaobao volcanic rock suites are of late Mesozoic age located respectively in the east and west of
    the Daxing'anling-Taihangshan gravity gradient zone. These volcanic rocks display similar characteristics in incompatible trace
    elements and radiogenic isotopes. They are highly fractionated in rare earth elements (REE) with a high LREEs/HREEs ratio, enriched
    in large ion lithophile elements (such as Rb, Ba, Th, U, K), relatively depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE: Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf,
    Ti), high (87Sr/86Sr)i and low εNd(t) and εHf(t). All these data suggest that the sources for the two volcanic rock suites are similar and their
    parental melts must have derived from partial melting of ancient metasomatized mantle lithosphere. Combined with the data in the
    literature, we propose that the lithospheric thinning beneath the North China Craton happened not only in the east but also to the west
    of the gradient zone in the late Mesozoic.

    DistributionSummaryofCenozoic Basalts in CentralandEasternChina
    CHEN Xiayu, CHEN Lihui*, CHEN Yang, ZENG Gang, LIU Jianqiang
    2014, 20(4):  507. 
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    Abstract:Distribution information of Cenozoic basalts were extracted by pixel from the geological map of central and Eastern China,
    and overlaid on the high-precision geomorphologic map, utilizing a digital-rimage processing program. Based on this method, we
    estimated the total and sub-regional area of Cenozoic basalts exposed in Central and Eastern China. The main observations include:(1)
    The total area of Cenozoic basalts in Central and Eastern China is 78 525 km2. (2) The area of Cenozoic basalts in Central China is
    35 487 km2, while that in Eastern China is 43 038 km2, with a ratio of 45∶55. (3) The area of Cenozoic basalts increases along with
    younger age, and the ratio of which from Paleogene, Neogene, to Quaternary is 0.36∶21.65∶77.99. (4) Cenozoic basalts of Central China
    are mainly distributed in the north. Three main regions include: Great Xing'an Range, Xilin Gol region and northern edge of North
    China, with an area of 7334 km2, 13 843 km2, and 14 310 km2, respectively. (5) In Eastern China, Cenozoic basalts are more widely
    distributed, from Heilongjiang province in the north to Hainan Island in the south, and they can be divided into three regions: Northeast
    China to the east Songliao basin (33 324 km2), Eastern China including Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Fujian provinces (1 707 km2),
    and Leiqiong region including Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula (8 007 km2). (6) Taken Shandong province as the boundary,
    Cenozoic basalts in Central and Eastern China are mainly distributed in the north with an area of 69 191 km2, while that of the southern
    part is 9334 km2, and their ratio is 88∶12.

    Geochemical Characteristics and Its Application to Depositional Environment Analysis of Permian Carbonates in Jiaomuri Area,Qiangtang Basin
    HU Junjie, LI Qi*, LI Juan, ZHANG Li, KONG Xiu, LIU Yong
    2014, 20(4):  519. 
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    In order to study the Permian paleoenvironment of the Jiaomuri area (Qiangtang Basin), geochemical analysis were taken
    from the dolomite samples of Lower Permian Zhanjin Formation and limestone samples of Middle Permian Longge Formation. Our data
    show that the average of the Y/Ho ratio is 45.14 while element Gd shows light positive anomaly, suggesting normal marine carbonate
    characteristics. The contents of SiO2 and Al2O3 are low indicating relatively limited terrestrial input. The low total REE contents
    (ΣREE) and the different LREE and HREE values of the samples indicate that REE were removed and LREE were fractionated more
    easily than HREE. The samples have obviously negative Ce and Eu anomalies showing an oxidizing paleoenvironment, which further
    supported by the analysis of V/Cr, V/(V+Ni), Sr/Ba and Sr/Ca ratios. Up-section, the Permian samples showed higher salinity and
    oxidbillity, which was supposed to be related to water depth shallowing related to a local compression tectonic trend.

    Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Red Limestones from the Huanglong Formationin the Fenghuang Shan Area, Anhui Province, East China
    LI Gen,LIU Xin,ZHAO Mengqi
    2014, 20(4):  528. 
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    The Late Carboniferous Huanglong Formation in Chaohu area in the lower Yangtze terrane consisted of red biomicrite
    limestone, with a upper belt of mixed mudstone and limestone. The red-colored Huanglong limestone provides a good opportunity for
    studying ferric minerals in the limestone and their relationships with the limestone bulk color, and for tracing the influence from
    hydrothermal activities. Here we present a comprehensive study on the Huanglong Formation, and discuss the implications for
    sedimentary environments and regional hydrothermal episodes. We collected red limestone samples, conducted thin section
    microscopical observations and performed instrumental analyses including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance
    Spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively Coupled
    Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). With DRS, we detected ferric oxide/hydroxide minerals (hematite and goethite) in
    the red limestones. We employed “redness”, a widely used paleoclimate index, to quantitatively describe the rocks’red color. Our
    data show that for the limestone samples, the hematite/goethite peak intensity on the DRS spectrum correlates well with the measured
    redness of the samples, but the bulk iron content shows no such good correlation, which suggests that the ferric oxide/hydroxide
    minerals likely control the abnormal red color of the Huanglong red limestones. In various diagrams characterized by distinct elemental
    distribution, element data for the limestone samples fall into the zones representing hydrothermal deposits, revealing the potential
    influence from hydrothermal activities. Though no direct evidence for hydrothermal systems was observed in the field (e.g.“, black
    chimney”relics), findings of Late Carboniferous hydrothermal-associated depositions have been reported in the neighboring area.
    Based on our results, the red-colored Huanglong limestones likely indicates a local response to the regional hydrothermal activities: the
    hydrothermal systems released ferrous solutes-enriched fluids to surface environments and these ferrous solutes were oxidized to ferric

    limestone. We conclude that the Huanglong Formation may record the imprint of the regional hydrothermal activities in the Late
    Carboniferous. Our study contributes to the decadal debates on the occurrences of large scale hydrothermal events during the Late
    Carboniferous in the lower Yangtze region, South China. Further investigations on sedimentary temperature reconstruction are needed
    for unraveling the lower Yangtze hydrothermal episodes.

    The Study of Adsorption of L-lysine and Chitosan on Montmorillonite
    XU Min, SHENG Lin, JI Junfeng, CAI Jingong
    2014, 20(4):  537. 
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    Organic matter adsorbed onto the surface of clay minerals is one of an important process in the natural environment.
    However, the process and mechanism of the interaction between natural organic matter and clay minerals is highly debated due to its
    complexity. To solve this problem, natural organic matter of L-lysine and chitosan are intercalated in montmorillonite. Chemical
    analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been employed in the characterization of the reaction products. Our data
    indicated that the adsorption of the L-lysine and chitosan is both firstly dominated by cation exchange and secondly by adsorption of
    electrically neutral forms. For L-lysine, three configurations seem to form. At low concentrations, L-lysine is inclined in the interlayer.
    As the concentration of L-lysine increases, the molecules orientate perpendicular to the montmorillonitelayers, maybe in a zig-zag
    arrangement. When the concentration is higher enough, the second row of L-lysine appears and peptides may formed in the interlayer
    by L-lysine polymerisation. The net charge of amino acids, which depends on the pH value in both the bulk solution and in the
    proximity of the clay layer or the interlayer space, is an important factor affecting the adsorption process. For chitosan, a layered
    structure can form in the interlayer of montmorillonite. The pH value of the solution and the presence of the inorganic salt will affect the
    adsorption process. Chitosan-montmor illonite complexes in aqueous solution at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is stable,
    but under the same condition, L-lysine is easily released from the interlayer space of montmorillonite, which is related to the nature of
    the organic matter itself and its form combined with montmorillonite.

    REE Geochemistry of Each Metallogenic Series in Laojunshan Tin Poly-metallic Metallogenic Region,Southeastern Yunnan Province, China
    JIA Fuju, NIAN Hongliang, LI Xing, WU Wei, YAN Yongfeng, LIU Xiaowei, GUO Yuejin
    2014, 20(4):  549. 
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    This paper focuses on the Laojunshan tin poly-metallic metallogenic region and studies the geological processes related to
    ore forming processes such as volcaniclastic sedimentation in early Caledonian, regional metamorphism in Indo-China period,
    superimposed late Yanshanian granitic process magmatism. Three types of metallogenic series were recognized, and each kind of
    metallogenic series has different REE distribution patterns. Type Ⅰ. Volcaniclastic sedimentation in early Caledonian-regional
    metamorphism in Indo-China period metallogenic series in the northeastern part of the study area have the similar REE distribution
    patterns with marine extrusive-sedimentation rocks (island-arc tholeiite type). Type Ⅱ. Volcaniclastic sedimentation in early
    Caledonian-regional metamorphism in Indo-Chinese epoch metallogenic series, near the granite contact zones, the REE distribution
    patterns show the coexistence of marine extrusive-sedimentation rocks and granites. Type Ⅲ. Superimposed granitic metallogenic

    series of the late Yanshanian epoch have the similar REE distribution patterns with those of granites.

    Cation Occupation Study for a Chromium Bearing Montmorillonite
    MAIDINA Nuertai, MAIERDAN Tuersun, CAI Yuanfeng*, WANG Hongtao*, PAN Yuguan
    2014, 20(4):  558. 
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    The purified montmorillonite with trace amounts of quartz was subjected to different concentration chromium sulphate
    solutions for one week cation exchange. The obtained chromium bearing montmorillonites were verified and tested using powder X-ray
    diffractometry (XRD), X-ray Flourence (XRF), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry and Frourie Transforming Infrar (FTIR) to
    explore the occupation site of chromium. The results suggested that the Cr3 + exchanged some of the cations in octahedral or minor
    cations in tetrahedral sites, such as Mn2+, Al3+ in octahedrons and Al3+ and Fe3+ in tetrahedrons, as well as the cations in the interlayer
    space of montmorillonite, such as Ca2+, K+ and Na+ etc. Furthermore, based on the XRD analyses, two types of montmorillonites with
    different kinds of hydration cations were present in the 0.2 mol/L chromium sulphate solutions. The hydration cations were [Cr(H2O)6]3+
    and [Cr(H2O)3O3]3+, respectively. The species of hydration cation were constrained by the concentration of the chromium solution.

    The Abnormal Features and Prospecting Significance of Geogas and X-ray Fluorescence in Exploration Area of Uranium Deposits in Southeastern Hubei Province
    ZHANG Guoya,ZHOU Sichun*,LIU Xiaohui,LIU Jun,YANG Kui,ZHU Jian
    2014, 20(4):  564. 
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    We have carried out concealed uranium ore prospecting by geogas and soil X-ray fluorescence (geochemistry)
    measurements in the exploration area of uranium deposits in southeastern Hubei Province. Measurements of the known uranium mining
    areas show that uranium occurs in the primary and secondary fractures. Above the ore fractures and along the direction extended from
    the fracture in the adjacent area, forms the geogas and soil geochemical anomaly area of uranium. In the abnormal zone, Pb, Zn, Cu,
    Au in the geogas show anomalies, but also show obvious difference. The anomalies are accompanied by low amplitude anomalies in W,
    Bi, Y, Mo, Mn, As and so on. According to the comprehensive analyses of exploration area with geogas and soil X-ray fluorescence data,
    the northwest part of the surveyed area north of the secondary fracture F7 captured all the characteristics of geogas and soil with known
    ore anomaly. According to the relationship between abnormal position of geogas and fracture, uranium may be buried at the depth of
    200~350 m, on to the ore body, extending 220 m along the strike. At present, uranium ore bodies have been confirmed in the abnormal
    area in a borehole at 200 m depth. Further exploration engineering work is in progress.

    Study on the Upper Triassic-lower Jurassic Bivalve Biostratigraphy and the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in the Nanling Region, South China
    ZHANG Yanwei, JIANG Baoyu*, NIU Yazhuo
    2014, 20(4):  570. 
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    The Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic in the Nanling region consists of continuously exposed, fossiliferous alternation of
    marine and nonmarine coal-bearing strata. Bivalves, including both marine and non-marine types, are very abundant fossils in the strata.
    Detailed study on these bivalves will provide important data on the correlation of marine and nonmarine Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic
    and erection of the Jurassic/Triassic boundary in this area. This paper studies the bivalve fossils from Shikang and Xiaping sections in
    Hunan province and Huizhai section in Guangdong province. Four upper Triassic-lower Jurassic bivalve zones are identified, i.e.,
    brackish water Unionites ? emeiensis peak zone, marine Retroceramus subinconditus-Hiatella assemblage zone, marine Ryderia

    zone. Based on the analysis of the distribution of representative bivalves in each zone, this paper roughly assigns the Unionites?
    emeiensis peak zone to Rhaetian, the Retroceramus subinconditus-Hiatella assemblage zone to Hettangian, and the Ryderia
    guangdongensis-Parainoceramus jinjiensis assemblage zone largely to Sinemurian, but probably to as young as Toarcian. By correlating
    with marine bivalve zone, the Kija ovata-Waagenoperna mytiloides assemblage zone is assigned to Hettangian to Toarcian.
    Consequently, the nonmarine T-J boundary is inferred to be located between the Unionites? emeiensis peak zone and the Kija
    ovata-Waagenoperna mytiloides assemblage zone in Nanling region. It is roughly equivalent with the nonmarine T-J boundary in
    Sichuan Basin (between the Modiolus weiyuanensis-Unionites? emeiensis assemblage zone and the Pseudocardinia (=Kija)
    kweichouensis-Cuneopsis sichuanensis assemblage zone) and the nonmarine T-J boundary in Junggar Basin (between the
    Waagenoperna-Yananoconcha (=Kija) assemblage zone and the underlaying Haojiagou Formation).

    δ13C and δ15N in the Sediments of Huguangyan Maar Lake as Proxies for Reconstructing Paleo-productivity and Paleo-environment in the Holocene
    GONG Weiming,ZHANG Zhaohui*
    2014, 20(4):  582. 
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    We analyzed the total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), bulk organic matter δ13C, and δ15N as well as magnetic
    index s-ratio in the sediment of Huguangyan Maar Lake in order to reconstruct the lake paleo-productivity and paleo-environmental
    changes through the Holocene. We divide the Holocene into three stages. The early Holocene (10400~6100 yr BP) is characterized by
    high TOC, high TN, high δ13CTOC and low δ15N as well as low s-ratio, reflecting a high primary productivity and a warm and wet climate;
    The lowest values of δ15N coupled with high TN during 8500 to 7100 yr BP might be attributed to the expansion of nitrogen-fixation
    cyanobacteria. During the mid-Holocene (6100~3600 yr BP), TOC, TN and δ13CTOC decreased while δ15N and s-ratio increased,
    suggesting a decreasing primary productivity and a cooler and drier climate. The late Holocene (3600 yr BP to present) is the coolest
    and driest period of the Holocene, indicated by the constantly low TOC, TN and saturated s-ratio (~1). Such trend indicates gradually
    weakened summer monsoon driven by decreasing summer solar radiation at 30°N through the Holocene. The δ13CTOC was low and δ15N
    was high before 1000 yr BP. However, their variations after 1000 yr BP are not consistent with the Holocene climate trend, and are
    probably a result of anthropogenic activity.

    Spores and Pollen Assemblages and Their Paleo-climate Implication from the Early Cretaceous Dark Mudstone in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces
    Liu Youxiang, Hu Wenxuan*, Hu Guang
    2014, 20(4):  590. 
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    By quantitative analysis of spores and pollen from early Cretaceous dark mudstones from three typical sections in Zhejiang
    and Fujian provinces, paleoclimate features of this area were obtained. Primary analysis of fossil spores and pollen shows that
    Pinuspollenites, Podocarpidites, Celtispollenites, Ulmuspollenites are characterized in Shipu section, Pinuspollenites, Gleicheiniiidites,
    Classopollis, Deltoidospora in Xiahuyuan section, Classopollis, Tracheid, Pinuspollenites, Podocarpidites in Chong'an section.
    Quantitative analysis of fossil spores and pollen shows that there has been a humid subtropical climate with less climatic fluctuation in
    Shipu, a humid-half humid subtropical climate with a short term of hot and dry climate in Xiahuyuan, half dry subtropical climate with
    a few times of undulations between half-arid and half-humid climate in Chong'·an. In conclusion, this study infers a subtropical
    paleoclimate with several undulations between half-arid and half-humid and it'·s more and more drought from east to west.

    Oil and Gas Migration Model of the Northern Slope of the Baodao Sag, the Qiongdongnan Basin
    ZHANG Xinshun, HUANG Zhilong, FAN Caiwei , WU Hongzhu
    2014, 20(4):  602. 
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    Based on the recent oil and gas exploration data of Baodao northern slope in the Qiongdongnan Basin and the analyses of
    target reservoir rocks of the Baodao northern slope, the oil-gas-bearing possibility was evaluated by quantitative grain fluorescence
    experiments. In combination with oil-gas charging time, stages of fault activity and some other geological background, oil-gas
    distribution characteristics of Baodao northern slope were analyzed. The results show that the target reservoir, i.e., the Sanya Formation,
    belongs to mid porosity and low permeability reservoir. Also, the pores are mainly intergranular and biological visceral pores, and the
    reservoir shows strong heterogeneity with high mud content. The oil and gas reservoirs of the Sanya Formation of Baodao northern slope
    formed very late. So the particle surface adsorbed hydrocarbon abundance of shallow Sanya Formation is prevalent high with low
    abundance of intragranular hydrocarbon. However, the oil and gas reservoirs of the Lingshui Formation, close to the Baodao sag, formed
    much earlier, but most of them were destroyed later. Therefore the particles of reservoirs have high abundance of intragranular
    hydrocarbon with low adsorbed hydrocarbon abundance. Because of the limited migration ability, the oil and gas generated from the
    Baodao Sag is mainly influenced the B area of Baodao northern slope and they have little contribution to the A area of Baodao northern
    slope, which is located at the northern part of the Songtao bulge. Through the widely developed faults, the oil and gas generated by the

    Oligocene source rock migrated vertically and accumulated in the reservoir of the Sanya Formation very late. And the characteristics of
    the oil and gas are different from those of the oil and gas from other areas

    The Influence of the Syn-kinematic Depositional Rate on the
    Compressional Deformation of Pre-existing Passive Salt Diapir:
    The Analysis and Analogue Modeling of Salt Structures in the Western
    Qiulitage Structural Belt, Kuqa Depression
    XIE Huiwen, WU Zhenyun*, NENG Yuan, YIN Hongwei, Hemin KOYI
    2014, 20(4):  611. 
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    Abstract:Two scaled analogue models are constructed to simulate the evolution of thick-skinned shortening on salt-bearing basins
    with pre-existing passive salt diapirs. These models simulate the evolution of the Cenozoic salt-related structures in the Qiulitage
    structural belt, western Kuqa depression. Model results show that the syn-kinematic depositional rate has a major controlling influence
    on the differential structural deformation in different longitudinal segmentations from the Bozi-Quele area (the west part) to
    Qiulitage-Kelasu area (the east part) in the Qiulitage structural belt, western Kuqa depression. During the shortening, the slow
    syn-kinematic depositional rate caused the north flank (the south flank of the Baicheng sag) of the pre-existing passive salt diapir thrust
    onto the south flank (the north flank of the Misikantake salt anticline) and made the formation of the Quele salt nappe and the

    Misikantake salt anticline in the Bozi-Quele area; In contrast, the quick syn-kinematic depositional rate caused the south flank of the
    pre-existing passive salt diapir thrust onto the north flank (the south flank of the Baicheng sag), which made the formation of the south
    Qiulitage salt anticline in the Qiulitage-Kelasu area.

    Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions and Its Application in Analysis of Hydrocarbon Accumulation Stages from the Chang 8 Sandstone in the Middle West Area of Ordos Basin
    LUO Chunyan,LUO Jinglan,LUO Xiaorong,BAI Xuejian,LEI Yuhong,CHENG Ming
    2014, 20(4):  623. 
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    The hydrocarbon accumulation stages of the Chang 8 Group, Yangchang Formation, Upper Triassic in the Middle West area
    of Ordos Basin were studied by analyzing and testing technology of fluid inclusions. The Chang 8 reservoir shows two periods of
    hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions according to the analysis of the petrography, homogenization temperature, salinity, density and
    chemical composition of hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions and the associated brine inclusions. The first stage hydrocarbon-bearing
    inclusions are mainly hosted in the early calcite cement, quartz grain surfaces and their syntaxial quartz overgrowths, and the
    cracks healed during the early diagenetic phase that do not cut through the quartz grains. The homogenization temperature peak value
    of brine inclusions associated with hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions of the first stage is mainly 80-90℃. The second stage hydrocarbonbearing
    inclusions are mainly distributed in the quartz grain surfaces and the cracks healed in the late diagenetic phase that cut

    diagenesis and hydrocarbon charging under microscope, diagenesis-hydrocarbon charging evolution sequence study and burial-thermal
    history analysis show that three periods of hydrocarbon accumulation occurred in the study area. The first hydrocarbon charging stage
    occurred from 169 Ma to 161 Ma, nearly no hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions suitable for homogenization temperature and chemical
    component measurement captured in the Chang 8 sandstones due to its limited proportion. Thus inclusions’temperature and
    composition data of this phase are lacking. The second hydrocarbon accumulation stage with larger dimension and broader distribution
    occurred during 148-135 Ma, which corresponds to the first stage of the hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions with homogenization
    temperature and composition measurement data. The third hydrocarbon charging stage occurred in the late Early Cretaceous
    (125.2-105.7 Ma) and is the major hydrocarbon accumulation stage in the study area which corresponds to the second stage
    hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions with homogenization temperature and composition measurement data in the Chang 8 sandstones.

    Adsorption Dynamics Analysis of Shale Reservoir Based on Micro-pore Filling Model
    YIN Shuai, DING Wenlong*, LIU Jianjun, HE Jianhua, WANG Ruyue
    2014, 20(4):  635. 
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    Micro-pore filling is an adsorption behavior that usually happens in micropores and high equilibrium pressure conditions,
    the thermodynamic theory based on this theory played a great role in determining the microscopic structures and adsorption
    properties. In this paper, we mainly discuss the relationship of filling rate θ, character energy E, character coefficience n, differential

    adsorption work A, the adsorption heat Q, the adsorption enthalpy ΔH and the adsorption entropy ΔS for methan. The results show
    that 1) n=1 is appropriate; 2) the value of E decreases with raising temperatures; 3) E is among 4.14~5.63 kJ/mol; with the increase
    of θ value, Q, ΔH, and ΔS decrease. These parameters change continuously and do not show sudden change. To some extent, the
    thermodynamic parameters can represent the comprehensive effects of parameters such as TOC and Ro. Comparison of the calculated
    parameters in this paper with the adsorption energy value of the Longmaxi shale in Sichuan basin shows that this set of shale in
    China has huge exploration and development potential.

    Study on the Responses of Landslide to Earthquake:Taken Kudiguazi Landslide as An Example
    CHEN Dan,FU Ronghua,YUEQI Aguang
    2014, 20(4):  642. 
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    Seismic landslides are divided into three categories, namely high rupture or serious landslide, landslide associated with the
    separated shear surface rupture, landslide in stream facies. In the southwest China, landslides are divided into four types: lapsed,
    tractive, sliding, and collapsed landslide according to the characteristics of seismic landslides. Some special geological phenomena are
    found during the investigation of the characteristics of landslides in Kushuiguazi, Maoxian, Sichuan Province. The special features are:
    (1) the upstream boundary thrust of landslide lake sediments and landslide groove body distribution of lake sediments show that
    Kushuiguazi landslide damming events have occurred. As a result, part of the landslide is covered by lake sediments and part of it is
    present, showing different covering phenomena from several other areas; (2) liquification phenomenon is found in Kushuiguazi
    landslide and regular arrangement of carcks are noticed; (3) the upright scarp is discovered in the lower part of the landslide. Soils on
    both sides are different in color and composition. The left side consists of silty soil, while the right side is dominated by gravel soil;
    (4) cracks parallel to the sliding direction are found in the middle and lower slope; (5) the field investigation on the upper slope found a

    filling wedge that consists of the large, rounded particles derived from the overlying soil. Synthesis of all kinds of features, indoor tests
    and statistics analysis of data, Kushuiguazi landslide of Maoxian may be earthquake induced based on features that cannot be
    explained by landslide associated with self-weight such as sand liqu fication, filling wedge, earthquake and steep scarp, fractures
    parallel to the sliding direction. Also, the occurrence of lots of landslides at the same time point to earthquake as cause of the Kuguazi
    landslide. The results of this study can provide some basis for the study of seismic landslides.