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    20 February 2021, Volume 27 Issue 1
    Recent Advancement in Methods of Estimating Geothermal Reservoir Temperature: A U.S. National Geothermal Data System-based Study
    JIANG Shu, CHEN Guohui, ZHANG Yuying, ZHANG Luchuan, KUANG Jian, LI Chun, CHENG Wanqiang
    2021, 27(1):  1-17.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020096
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    Estimation of geothermal reservoir temperature plays a key role in the geothermal system research. This study employs geothermometers of geochemistry, mineral equilibria, mixing model with cold meteoric water, and gas to evaluate the reservoir

    temperature of different geothermal fields with data archived in the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), which concludes the
    limitations of applications of different methods for determining the reservoir temperature and provides benchmarks for choosing the
    appropriate methods to calculate the geothermal reservoir temperature. The results reveal that: 1) The geochemical geothermometer
    method is reliable when the geothermal fluids reach the equilibrium between ions and minerals; the SiO2 (silica) geothermometer is more reliable than the cation geothermometer when the geothermal fluids have not reached the equilibrium; 2) The saturation index of the mineral equilibria can provide benchmarks choosing the geothermometers even if it cannot calculate the accurate reservoir temperature due to the selection of limited saturated minerals. For example, the chalcedony geothermometer is better than SiO2 geothermometer to estimate the reservoir temperature of due to the oversaturation of silica based on the multi-mineral equilibrium plot. For the vapordominated high temperature geothermal reservoirs, the minerals and ions cannot reflect the properties of geothermal reservoir, and the gas thermometer will be more successful in predicting the subsurface temperature in high-temperature geothermal systems. The mixing models usually overestimate the reservoir temperature since they pick up the temperature before the hot water gets mixed with the cold water. There is no universal geothermometer since each method has its own assumptions and works for specific geothermal setting. The best approach is to employ various suitable geothermometers and validate the results.

    CGI Geoscience Data Standards and Their Applications
    LIU Rongmei, ZHANG Minghua, WANG Yongzhi, YU Hailong, REN Wei
    2021, 27(1):  18-31.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020097
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    The paper introduces the International Commission for Geoscience Information of IUGS (CGI) and its main standards on geoscience markup language GeoSciML, Earth resource markup language EarthResourceML, and the vocabulary of Geoscience Terminology. Modeling method and pedigree chart of GeoSciML have been briefly introduced. Modelling theories, methods and structures of GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been described by using package diagrams and class diagrams of UML, and the multi-language
    vocabulary is listed. Geologic Unit, Geologic Structure, Geomorphologic Feature and Geologic Event of GeoSciML Basic package are presented as the main focus. So as the two main packages of EarthResourceML, Mineral package and Mineral Occurrence package. The former package containsmany classes related to activities in the mining process, and the MO package describes factors independent from human activity, such as mineral resources, deposit types, and mineralization models. Inspired by the thorough investigation, a primary geological data model based on GeoSciML and a mining rights data model based on EarthResourceML are proposed. They offer good solutions to discover new geologic features by exploring dynamic relations between different geoscience data model, and provide excellent references to geoscience data sharing.
    Dinosaur-related Database Development and Examples of Data-driven Discovery
    LIANG Qingqing, XING Lida
    2021, 27(1):  32-44.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020105
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    Dinosaurs are one of high profile symbols in paleontology. They dominated the Mesozoic terrestrial and marine ecosystems and therefore are of great significance to study the Earth evolution. In recent years, along with the rapid increase dinosaurology data and
    the quick fusion of data science and paleontology, various types of dinosaur-related databases have been constructed worldwide. Those
    databases serve for different purposes. Some mainly contain introductions for the aim of popular science, some are built for specific research targets and others are comprehensive paleontological database containing dinosaur data. Because none of them is a professional dinosaur database, common defects such as incomplete data coverage and poor data structure, could be found and none has long-term sustainability. With the help of the Deep-time Digital Earth (DDE) big science project, to construct a professional dinosaur database combining the purposes of scientific research and popular science, can promote both the dinosaur evolution study and the public understanding for paleontology.
    Big Data Management and Sharing for Earth Sciences: An Paradigm from British Geological Survey
    WEN Die, HUANG Hao, SHI Yukun, YANG Sunrong, YANG Jiao, WANG Yuan, HOU Xudong, FAN Junxuan
    2021, 27(1):  45-57.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020098
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    In the era of big data, the effective utilization of massive geological data should be based on effective storage, management and sharing of these information. As the earliest national geological survey, British Geological Survey (BGS) has an unprecedented wealth of geological data. They are also at the forefront of sharing data worldwide through a comprehensive system in this decade. This paper aims to investigate and analyze their current geological data resources and data management and sharing status. Special emphasis is devoted to elaborate their integrated data platform, “OpenGeoscience”, as well as databases maintained by them and their collaborators. OpenGeoscience is a comprehensive platform to store and manage various types of digital data of BGS. Furthermore, it integrates various datasets by data sharing mechanism and seamlessly linking data and application models, in order to meet the personalized needs from various disciplines. Therefore, OpenGeoscience sets a good example of geological data management and sharing system for the Earth Science community, especially for the on-gonging Deep-Time Earth initiated by Chinese geologists and their peers.

    Advances on Surficial Geochemistry Database and Related Research
    XU Yijiang, LI Chenglong, TAN Haolin, SHENG Xuefen
    2021, 27(1):  58-72.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2021003
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    Surficial Geochemistry is an interdisciplinary study of the earth’s surface system, which is closely related to climate, environment, and human being. With the advent of the era of big data, surficial geochemistry is facing new opportunities and challenges. In order to provide reference for the construction of the big data platform of the Deep-Time Digital Earth Project (DDE), this paper conducts a preliminary investigation on the existing surficial geochemical data and databases. The results show that the surficial geochemical data have the characteristics of diversity and inter-disciplinal. Most data are lacking of standards and in an unstructured state; larger databases such as GEOTRACES and PANGAEA have relatively accepted data standards and data management experience; SISAL database has achieved key results in the task of data structuring; which are all worthy of further study. The works of surficial geochemistry big data science construction should be guided by research goals and needs, and by setting up corresponding scientific working groups as joined forces to promote the digitalization of surficial geochemistry discipline.
    Design and Implementation of An Element Variation Diagram Automatic Generation Software Based on Big Data
    FANG Siyuan, DONG Shaochun, HU Huan
    2021, 27(1):  73-79.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020036
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    As one of the most important methods to study the correlation between different elements, element variation diagram intuitively shows the variation of elements during magma evolution process. However, traditional element variation diagram could not reveal geochemical behaviors of different elements at different magma evolution stages, which significantly limit the further application of geological big data. In order to process and analyze geological big data-based element variation diagrams, the exhaustion method combined with linear fitting were adopted to draw geochemical big data-based element variation diagrams in this paper. This method had been implemented in the framework of MATLAB GUI and developed a new software (Elemental Behavior of Magmatic Evolution, EBME)
    to draw the element variation diagram automatically. More than 200,000 records of geochemical data with different tectonic settings from the GEOROCK database were collected and cleaned, and then imported into EBME software and processed. The results showed that the EBME software can quickly generate element variation diagrams and clearly show the variations of elements in different stages of magmatic evolution and different tectonic settings, indicating that EBME software could be an effective and efficient tool to cipher the evolution of elements in magma system.
    Zircon U-Pb Age and Geochemistry of the Granitic Porphyry from the Baibuxie River of the West Junggar, Xinjiang, and Its Tectonic Significance
    YU Zhiquan, LIU Bo, HONG Yangbaihe
    2021, 27(1):  80-93.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020013
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    The Late Carboniferous-Late Permian intrusive rocks are widely distributed in the central West Junggar, and the tectonic settings in which these rocks were formed are of great significance to reveal the tectonic evolution of the West Junggar during the Late Paleozoic. In this paper, the granitic porphyry from the Baibuxie-River that intruded into the Upper Carboniferous Molaoba Formation in the northern Barleik Mountains is studied to provide further constrains for the tectonic evolution of central West Junggar. We present the results of petrology, U-Pb dating of zircons, whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes of the granitic porphyry to investigate the petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of the granite porphyry from the Baibuxi 4

    e River is 276±5 Ma, indicating that it was formed in the Early Permian. The granitic porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 (76.72%~79.25%), total alkali (Na2O+K2O=5.53%~7.06%) contents, and low magnesium values (Mg#=8~14). Its A/CNK values range from 1.07 to 1.40,which belong to peraluminous and subalkaline granite series. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns exhibit a right-inclined “seagull” shape ((La/Yb) N =3.22~4.34), with a significant negative Eu anomaly (δEu=0.09~0.10). It is enriched in LILEs such as Rb and K, strongly depleted in Sr, P and Ti, moderately depleted in Ba, Nb and Ta elements, and has high FeOT/MgO (10.65~19.32) and 10000Ga/Al (3.61~4.41) values and Zr+Nb+Ce+Y concentrations (859.7×10-6~1054.8×10-6), typical of aluminum A2 type granite. The granite porphyry exhibits low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70482~0.70535 and high positive εNd(t) values of +6.3~+7.3. Based on the above-mentioned geochemical characteristics, we suggest that it was likely formed by partial melting of juvenile crust, followed by high degrees of fractional crystallization and minor crustal contamination under a post-collisional extension regime. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the regional data of coeval intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks, and sedimentary rocks and the fact that there are no post-Early Carboniferous ophiolitic mélange and subduction-related metamorphic rocks in the whole West Junggar, it can be inferred that there was no subduction of oceanic crust since the Early Carboniferous and the Junggar Ocean might have been closed at the early Late Carboniferous.

    Study on Heating Characteristics and Prediction Model of Igneous Rock under Microwave Irradiation
    ZHAO Qinhua, ZHAO Xiaobao, ZHAO Jianxin, LIU Hanwen, ZHENG Yanlong, LI Jianchun, HE Lei, HE Julong, YU Jiawang
    2021, 27(1):  94-101.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2020003
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    Microwave-assisted rock breaking can effectively reduce cutting tool wear and improve breaking efficiency, which has a broad prospect of engineering development. 10 kinds of igneous rocks were heated under microwave irradiation. The results illustrated that the heating rate depends on mineral species and content as well as the Fe content. The heating rate is higher when the rock contains more sensitive minerals and Fe. Generally, basic rock has the highest heating rate, followed by intermediate rock, acid rock the lowest. This phenomenon is related with the law of mineral and element composition in igneous rocks. Heating prediction model of rock was proposed based on experimental study. Except for mineral species and content, ratio and structure correction coefficients related to the temperature increment were also taken into consideration. In the heating prediction model, the ratio correction coefficient of sensitive mineral is bigger than 1, decreasing with the rise of its content, and eventually tending to 1. The ratio correction coefficient of non-sensitive mineral is smaller than 1, increasing with the rise of its content, and eventually tending to 1. The heating rate of block is twice to three times that of powder. The structure correction coefficient of basic rock is bigger than that of intermediate rock and acid rock.
    Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Zeolite in the Northwestern Margin of Junggar Basin: A Case Study of the Permian Urho Formation in Manan Area
    LIAN Lixia, WANG Jian, YANG Zhao, MA Cong, LUO Zhengjiang, YANG Shengchao, ZHANG Wenjie, HU Wenxuan
    2021, 27(1):  102-110.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2019107
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    Zeolite is a type of special cement developed in the Permian Wuerhe Formation in the Manan area of the northwestern Junggar Basin. The mineralogical characteristics, spatial distribution, genetic mechanism and reservoir formation mechanism of zeolite cement in the study area were investigated, by using combined methods including core observation, thin section identification, SEM analysis and rock composition statistics. Results show that laumontite and heulandite are the two main types of zeolites developed in the Wuerhe Formation of the study area. Specifically, the heulandite has two phases, i.e., iron-rich in the early phase and iron-poor in the late phase. They can also be distinguished by the color of the cements under microscope: the early phase in red and the late phase without color. The spatial distribution of the zeolites in the study area does not have an obvious pattern. In contrast, vertically the content of laumontite and heulandite has a gradual decrease trend from the Wuerhe Formation to the Baikouquan Formation. The formation of zeolite is mainly controlled by the components of tuff gravel in the parent rock. The intermediate-acid rock gravel is unfavorable for the formation of laumontite, and there is no obvious relationship between the other volcanic gravels and the formation of all kinds of zeolites in the study area. The widespread secondary dissolved pores of laumontite are the main reservoir space in the study area for hydrocarbon accumulation. The precipitation and dissolution of zeolites are a complex diagenetic effect that can be summarized into a two-stage diagenesis processes. In the early stage, the normal diagenesis formed diverse kinds of zeolite cements under an alkaline environment that rich in metal ions. In the late stage, deep fluid upwellings that contain acidic hydrocarbon-bearing fluids dissolved and altered the reservoirs. The deep fluid alteration is the key stage of reservoir formation in the Manan and its adjacent areas of the northwestern Junggar Bsin, which is important for the formation of commercial oil accumulation.

    Feasibility Analysis of the Longyan Geopark in Fujian Province for Applying UNESCO Global Geopark
    JIA Zhenjie, WU Fadong, WANG Yawei, QIANG Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Lihua, XU Lei
    2021, 27(1):  111-119.  DOI: 10.16108/j.issn1006-7493.2019103
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    Longyan Geopark is located in western Fujian Province. The geopark recorded transitional processes of the South China Block from the Indosinian intracontinental orogenic tectonic system to the subduction tectonic system of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Mesozoic. Hence, it is a key area for studying the Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Southeast China. This article analyzes and contrasts the geoheritage, natural and cultural heritages of the geopark to confirm and highlight its uniqueness and important values in geology, aesthetics, education, and tourism. According to the Unite Nations Educational, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Global Geopark guidelines, there are still some room for improvement for Longyan Geopark to bid for the UNESCO Global Geopark and the suggested improvement has been proposed.